Ophthalmic and neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of sarcoidosis

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Purpose of review

Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic inflammatory disease that commonly affects the eye and less often the neuro-ophthalmic pathways. The manifestations can be quite variable but can have characteristic signs and clinical features. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the various ocular and neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of sarcoidosis, emerging diagnostic measures and approach to treatment. Particular focus is given to recent advances in diagnostic approach and available treatment options.

Recent findings

Laboratory investigations, chest and nuclear medicine imaging remain important techniques for helping to diagnose sarcoidosis. Recent evidence suggests a role for aqueous humor analysis in the diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis. Characteristic neuroimaging may help differentiate neurosarcoidosis from other causes. The role of blind conjunctival biopsy for suspected neurosarcoidosis is discussed. The emerging role and use of biologics is delineated for the treatment of both ocular and neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis.


Sarcoidosis can affect any part of the visual system: the most common ocular manifestation is uveitis and the most common neuro-ophthalmic manifestation is optic neuropathy. Although diagnosis remains challenging, recent advancements in diagnosis are promising. Emerging biologics with particular efficacy for ocular and neuro-ophthalmic disease provide expanding treatment options for sight-threatening disease.

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