Impact of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on endoxifen concentrations and breast cancer outcomes
We investigated the impact of germline CYP2D6 genotyping done using the non-tumor specimen on endoxifen concentrations and/or clinical outcomes in breast cancer (BC) patients treated with tamoxifen in published studies. We evaluated published data from 13 001 patients in 29 studies. Mean ± s.d. endoxifen concentrations were significantly lower in poor metabolizers (PM) versus extensive metabolizers (EM) (8.8 ± 7.2 versus 22.3 ± 11.8 ng ml-1; P < 0.05). The PM status did not influence clinical outcomes in majority of the studies. However, only one study followed the Gaedigk activity scoring for phenotypic assignments, which predicted recurrence-free survival in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. In two independent studies with 1676 patients, low endoxifen concentrations predicted poor BC-free survival. From our review of published data we found that standardization of CYP2D6 genotype-phenotype classification is needed in order to ensure effective evaluation of associations between CYP2D6 polymorphisms and endoxifen concentrations and BC outcomes. Universal implementation of this standardization classification system should be a priority among researchers and laboratories. Furthermore, additional clinical research is warranted to determine whether patients with CYP2D6 PM phenotypes or low endoxifen levels will have better clinical outcomes with increased tamoxifen dosing compared to standard dosing.