Update on diagnostics of metabolic myopathies

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Abstract

Purpose of review

This review aims to highlight the most relevant clinical and laboratory findings, regarding acute and progressive metabolic myopathies, and to develop an algorithm addressing clinicians to clinical practice.

Recent findings

Although diagnosis of metabolic myopathies remains still challenging, the recent identification of new disorders has increased the number of patients requiring specific investigations. Nowadays, a more detailed characterization of the clinical spectrum of metabolic myopathies improved awareness as well as a deeper knowledge on their natural history or multisystem involvement. Diagnostic procedures, as first-line screening tests are necessary for an earlier and more accurate diagnostic work up, not only in infantile cases, but also in adults with suspected metabolic myopathies. New generation diagnostic techniques such as NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) and whole exome/genome sequencing have emerged as innovative tools to extensively evaluate either known genes variants or new candidate genes as possible causes of metabolic myopathies.

Summary

Diagnosis of metabolic myopathies is still challenging for clinicians because of rarity and clinical heterogeneity which is often overlapping with other neuromuscular disorders. Detailed algorithms supported by advanced laboratory investigations may be helpful to timely reach a diagnosis, so allowing an earlier therapeutic decision.

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