Ex Vivo Induction of Multiple Myeloma-specific Immune Responses by Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells Following Stimulation by Whole-tumor Antigen of Autologous Myeloma Cells

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The introduction of novel agents has significantly expanded treatment options for multiple myeloma (MM), albeit long-term disease control cannot be achieved in the majority of patients. Vaccination with MM antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) represents an alternative strategy that is currently being explored. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenic potential of ex vivo–generated monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), following stimulation with the whole-antigen array of autologous myeloma cells (AMC). MoDCs were loaded with antigens of myeloma cells by 2 different methods: phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies from γ-irradiated AMC, or transfection with AMC total RNA by square-wave electroporation. Twenty patients with MM were enrolled in the study. Following stimulation and maturation, moDCs were tested for their capacity to induce T-helper 1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in vitro. Both strategies were effective in the induction of myeloma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte and T-helper 1 cells, as demonstrated by cytotoxicity and ELISpot assays. On the whole, T-cell responses were observed in 18 cases by either method of DC pulsing. We conclude that both whole-tumor antigen approaches are efficient in priming autologous antimyeloma T-cell responses and warrant further study aiming at the development of individualized DC vaccines for MM patients.

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