Proinflammatory Cytokines Mediate GPCR Dysfunction
Proinflammatory reaction by the body occurs acutely in response to injury that is considered primarily beneficial. However, sustained proinflammatory cytokines observed with chronic pathologies such as metabolic syndrome, cancer, and arthritis are detrimental and in many cases is a major cardiovascular risk factor. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) have long been implicated in cardiovascular risk and considered to be a major underlying cause for heart failure (HF). The failure of the anti-TNFα therapy for HF indicates our elusive understanding on the dichotomous role of proinflammatory cytokines on acutely beneficial effects versus long-term deleterious effects. Despite these well-described observations, less is known about the mechanistic underpinnings of proinflammatory cytokines especially TNFα in pathogenesis of HF. Increasing evidence suggests the existence of an active cross-talk between the TNFα receptor signaling and G-protein–coupled receptors such as β-adrenergic receptor (βAR). Given that βARs are the key regulators of cardiac function, the review will discuss the current state of understanding on the role of proinflammatory cytokine TNFα in regulating βAR function.