A number of nanoparticles has been developed by chemists for biomedical applications to meet imaging and targeting needs. In parallel, adoptive T therapy with chimeric antigen receptor engineered T cells (CAR T cells) has recently held great promise in B-cell malignancy treatments thanks to the development of anti-CD19 CAR T cells. Indeed, CD19 is a reliable B cell marker and a validated target protein for therapy. In this perspective article, we propose to discuss the advantages, limits and challenges of nanoparticles and CAR T cells, focusing on CD19 targeting objects: anti-CD19 nanoparticles and anti-CD19 CAR T cells, because those genetically-modified cells are the most widely developed in clinical setting. In the first part, we will introduce B cell malignancies and the CD19 surface marker. Then we will present the positioning of nanomedicine in the topic of B cell malignancy, before exposing CAR T technology. Finally, we will discuss the complementary approaches between nanoparticles and CAR T cells.