Acute Kidney Injury Impairs Postnatal Renal Adaptation and Increases Morbidity and Mortality in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants

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Abstract

Objective

This study aims to estimate the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) on postnatal renal adaptation, morbidity, and mortality in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants.

Design

We conducted a retrospective study of 457 VLBW infants admitted to a tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between July 2009 and April 2015. We compared patient characteristics, risk factors, serum creatinine trends, and adverse outcomes in infants with and without AKI using multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results

Incidence of AKI was 19.5%. On multivariate analysis, postnatal risk factors such as patent ductus arteriosus and vancomycin use were significantly associated with AKI. Infants with AKI had significantly higher mortality; 25/89 (28%) versus 15/368 (4%) (p < 0.001). Among survivors with AKI, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) was more prevalent (52.8 vs. 23.9%, p < 0.001), serum creatinine remained elevated for a longer duration and median length of stay extended by 38 days.

Conclusion

Presence of AKI was associated with impaired postnatal renal adaptation, BPD, significantly longer stay in the NICU and higher mortality.

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