The correlation between Salter's criteria for avascular necrosis of the femoral head and Kalamchi's prognostic classification following the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between Salter's criteria and Kalamchi's classification of avascular necrosis in patients treated for developmental dysphasia of the hip (DDH).

Patients and Methods

The study involved a retrospective analysis of 123 patients (123 hips) with DDH treated by operative and non-operative reduction before the age of two years, with a minimum followup of ten years. Salter's criteria (S1 to S4) were determined from radiographs obtained at one to two years post-reduction, whilst the Kalamchi grade was determined from radiographs obtained at ten or more years of age. Early post-reduction radiographs were also used to evaluate the centre-head distance discrepancy (CHDD) and the occurrence of a dome-shaped deformity of the proximal femoral metaphysis (D-shaped metaphysis).

Patients and Methods

The prognosis was described as good (Kalamchi grade K0 or KI), fair (Kalamchi grade KII) or poor (Kalamchi grade KIII or KIV) for analysis and correlation with the early Salter criteria, CHDD and D-shaped metaphysis.


S1 and S2 criteria were predictive of a poor prognosis. The outcome following S3, S4 and S3 + S4 varied; 18 (40%) had a good prognosis, 17 (38%) a fair prognosis and ten (22%) a poor prognosis. A CHDD ≥ 10% and a D-shaped metaphysis were also predictive of a poor prognosis.


The Salter criteria were predictive of the Kalamchi grade of avascular necrosis in patients with DDH aged ten or more years after reduction of the hip.

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