Lactobacillus plantarum BS22 promotes gut microbial homeostasis in broiler chickens exposed to aflatoxin B1

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Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by certain strains of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus, which mainly include four aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) (Eaton & Gallagher, 1994; Monbaliu et al., 2009). Since their discovery in 1960, aflatoxins have contaminated various types of crops and feedstuffs all over the world (Hamid, Tesfamariam, Zhang, & Zhang, 2013; Guchi, 2015). Consuming of aflatoxin‐contaminated food caused health problems in human and animals, particularly children and young animals (Shi et al., 2013; Turner & Pasturel, 2013). Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has the strongest toxicity in feedstuffs (Reddy et al., 2010). AFB1 exhibits a series of negative effects on the health of poultry, including poor performance, damaged immunity, intestinal microflora imbalance and internal organ lesions (Yunus, Razzazi‐Fazeli, & Bohm, 2011; Attia et al., 2013; Habib, Abdu, Kwanashie, Kabir, & Negedu, 2015). The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is the first organ that comes in contact with aflatoxin‐contaminated feedstuffs. In addition, the GIT, where large, complicated microbes reside, is the main site of conversion and absorption of food components. There was a study demonstrated that the AFB1 can inhibit Streptococcus agalactiae, Yersinia enterocolitica and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro (Ali‐Vehmas, Rizzo, Westermarck, & Atroshi, 1998). However, few studies focus on the effect of the intake of AFB1 on GIT microbes in poultry, which will be explained in our research.
In recent years, many methods have been developed to degrade AFB1, such as chemical, biological and physical treatments (Galvano, Piva, Ritieni, & Galvano, 2001). In 1966, the sensitivity of 329 micro‐organisms to AFB1 was first reported in vitro (Burmeister & Hesseltine, 1966). Probiotics, which primarily include Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces and Bacillus, were used to bind the AFB1 in feedstuffs of poultry in recent years (Bagherzadeh, Karimi, Allameh, & Shariatmadari, 2012; Pizzolitto, Armando, Salvano, Dalcero, & Rosa, 2013; Yu, Chang, & Lee, 2015). Lactobacillus is one of the most studied probiotics in binding the AFB1 in poultry (El‐Nezami, Kankaanpaa, Salminen, & Ahokas, 1998; Gratz, Mykkänen, & Elnezami, 2005; Hernandez‐Mendoza, Guzman‐De‐Peña, Vallejo‐Córdoba, & Garcia, 2010; Hamidi et al., 2013). In addition, the benefits of Lactobacillus plantarum BS22 (LP) on immune characteristics, production performance and intestinal microflora in healthy broiler were confirmed (Shen et al., 2013). PCR‐DGGE provides an easy and intuitive approach to analyse microbiota (Chen, Wang, Jiang, Xiong, & Wei, 2011). Viable count and real‐time PCR can quantify the microbiota quickly and accurately (Singh et al., 2012). In addition, these methods were widely used to investigate the GIT microbiota of animals (Jeyanathan, Kirs, Ronimus, Hoskin, & Janssen, 2011; Singh et al., 2012). The objective of this study was to evaluated the ability of LP to adsorb AFB1 in vitro and the benefits of LP in maintaining the microbial homeostasis in the content and mucosa of the GIT of broiler chickens exposed to AFB1, including the crop, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum, using PCR‐DGGE, viable count and real‐time PCR.
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