RAF1: further phenotypic delineation and review of literature variants causing biventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in two preterm infants: further phenotypic delineation and review of literature

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Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by distinctive facial features, short neck, short stature, congenital heart defects, pectus deformities, and variable developmental delays. NS is genetically heterogeneous as pathogenic variants in several genes involved in the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway have been associated with a NS phenotype. Overall, 50% of patients harbor pathogenic variants in PTPN11, whereas 3–17% of patients have variants in RAF1. We present two premature neonates with progressive biventricular hypertrophy found to have RAF1 variants in the CR2 domain. Molecular testing in patient 1 revealed a missense variant of a highly conserved residue c.782 C>G (p.P261R). This variant has been reported once with fatal outcome. Patient 2 also had a missense variant in a highly conserved neighboring residue c.770 C>T (p.S257L). This variant has been previously reported, most recently associated with the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Both our patients had prenatal findings of polyhydramnios, short long bones, hydrops fetalis, and cardiac anomalies with progressive biventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Both patients had a lethal outcome. Our findings further support the pathogenicity and lethality of p.P261R, and the need to monitor for pulmonary arterial hypertension in p.S257L. In addition, the second patient was presented with progressive hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis. This could be related to the NS phenotype. More cases with this association are needed to confirm this finding.

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