Pneumonia with bacterial and viral coinfection

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Purpose of review

We aim to review the epidemiology of pneumonia with bacterial and viral coinfection, the pathogenesis and clinical impact of coinfection along with the current state of treatment and outcomes.

Recent findings

Emphasis is given to the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral co-infection including specific highlighting on influenza, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and cytomegalovirus. Updates on the current state of diagnosis and management are included, as well as on areas where future research can be directed to improve patient clinical outcomes regarding viral and bacterial coinfection.


Bacterial and viral coinfection is increasingly recognized as an underlying etiology for community- and hospital-acquired infections. Coinfections may be a risk factor for ICU admission, severity of disease, and mortality. Clinicians must be aware of these coinfections for appropriate management and prognostication, as well as for the prevention of nosocomial spread of viral illness.

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