Comorbid Sleep Disturbances in Neurologic Disorders
Purpose of Review: This article provides a review of disturbances of sleep comorbid with common neurologic disorders.
Recent Findings: A wide variety of neurologic disorders are frequently complicated by comorbid sleep disturbances. In many cases, a bidirectional relationship appears to occur between sleep function and the neurologic disease, such that treatment of comorbid sleep disturbances may improve the symptoms of the neurologic disease.
Summary: Neurologic disorders are often associated with abnormalities of sleep. Sleep influences the severity of both epilepsy and headache, and treatment of comorbid sleep disorders may improve seizure and headache frequency. Alzheimer disease is characterized by circadian phase delay and poor nighttime sleep and is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea. Parkinson disease is associated with several sleep disorders, including insomnia, restless legs syndrome, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, daytime hypersomnia, and sleep-disordered breathing. Hypoventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neuromuscular disorders often presents initially with sleep problems, and treatment with noninvasive ventilation improves survival and quality of life.