Diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis in precision medicine
Anaphylaxis is the most severe and frightening of the allergic reactions, placing patients at high risk and demanding prompt recognition and immediate management by health care providers. Yet because its symptoms imitate those of other diseases, such as asthma and urticaria, current data suggest that its diagnosis is often missed, with underuse of tryptase measurement; its treatment is delayed, with little use of epinephrine; and its underlying cause or causes are poorly investigated. Deaths from anaphylaxis are difficult to investigate because of miscoding. Surprisingly, patients treated with new and powerful chemotherapy agents and humanized mAbs present with nonclassical symptoms of anaphylaxis, and patients may present with unrecognized clonal mast cell disorders with KIT mutations may present as Hymenoptera-induced or idiopathic anaphylaxis. The goal of this review is to recognize the presentations of anaphylaxis with the description of its current phenotypes, to provide new insight and understanding of its mechanisms and causes through its endotypes, and to address its biomarkers for broad clinical use. Ultimately, the aim is to empower allergists and heath care providers with new tools that can help alleviate patients’ symptoms, preventing and protecting them against anaphylaxis.