Measuring generalised expectancies for negative mood regulation in China: The Chinese language Negative Mood Regulation scale
Negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE) represent people's confidence that they can alleviate their negative affect or induce a positive emotional state through thought or action. NMRE predict coping behaviour and mood outcomes for individuals under stress. Since 1990, much research documents the reliability and validity of the English language Negative Mood Regulation (NMR) scale as a measure of NMRE. The current research reports two studies developing a Chinese language translation of the NMR (NMR-C) scale that goes beyond literal translation to be a culturally sensitive measure of NMRE in China. In Study 1, 713 college students from both a major city and a rural setting in China were surveyed. Data support the resulting 32-item NMR-C's reliability (alpha = .88) and validity. The NMR-C showed both direct and indirect links to depression and anxiety; coping mediated the indirect effect. In Study 2, 331 prison police officers in three Chinese provinces participated. NMRE buffered the effect of high role pressure, moderating the relationship between prison police role stress and job engagement. Results of the two studies support the reliability and validity of the Chinese language NMR scale and parallel results found with measures of NMRE in the West and in other Asian countries.