Long-Term Management with Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Conventional Treatment in a Dog with Hepatocutaneous Syndrome.
Hepatocutaneous syndrome (HS) is an uncommon skin disorder that occurs in conjunction with liver disease and is diagnosed based on decreased plasma concentrations of amino acids and the histopathology of skin lesions. The survival period generally is <6 months. A 10-year-old castrated male Maltese dog was presented for evaluation of lethargy, polyuria, polydipsia, and skin lesions including alopecia, erythema, and crusts. Based on increased liver enzyme activity, low plasma amino acid concentrations, and findings from liver cytology and skin biopsy, the dog was diagnosed with HS. In addition to administration of antioxidants, hepatoprotective agents, and amino acids IV, allogenic adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells were infused 46 times over a 30-month period: 8 times directly into the liver parenchyma guided by ultrasonography and the remainder of the times into peripheral veins. After commencing stem cell therapy, the dog's hair re-grew and the skin lesions disappeared or became smaller. During ongoing management, the patient suddenly presented with anorexia and uncontrolled vomiting, and severe azotemia was observed. The dog died despite intensive care. On necropsy, severe liver fibrosis and superficial necrolytic dermatitis were observed. The dog survived for 32 months after diagnosis. A combination of amino acid and stem cell therapy may be beneficial for patients with HS.