Cisplatin is commonly prescribed for the treatment of various solid tumors but its use is limited due to certain side effects and renal injury is a true example. Oxidative stress and inflammation may contribute to the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Accordingly, we evaluated the effect of oral vanillin intake (100 mg/kg body weight) daily for 4 weeks to combat this hazard. The present results have demonstrated significant attenuation of oxidative stress and renal injury where reduced glutathione (GSH) showed significant increase along with malondialdehyde (MDA) decrease. Fibrotic markers like fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), inflammatory mediators such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) showed also significant decrease in vanillin treated rats as compared with the control group.
Renal function showed also significant improvement where urea and creatinine demonstrated significant decrease and the histopathological study presented a good support to the biochemical markers results. Our conclusion that vanillin is a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic agent. Additionally, it is a good modulator candidate for the renal injury induced by cisplatin intake.