Association between renal function and outcomes after percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty in hypertensive patients with renal artery stenosis

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Abstract

Objective:

We investigated the impact of renal function on outcomes after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.

Methods:

A total of 139 hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (mean age, 70 years, 80.6% men) who underwent renal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty were included. Renal function was evaluated on the basis of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria/proteinuria, and classified into three categories according to eGFR (≥45, 30–44, and <30 ml/min/1.73 m2) and albuminuria/proteinuria [normal-to-mild: albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) less than 3.0, protein/creatinine ratio (PCR) less than 15; moderate: ACR 3.0–30.0, PCR 15–50; severe: ACR > 30.0, PCR > 50 mg/mmol].

Results:

During a median follow-up of 5.4 years, 36.0% of patients developed the primary composite end point, including cardiovascular and renal outcomes. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, eGFR less than 30 (hazard ratio 3.47, P < 0.01) as well as severe albuminuria/proteinuria (hazard ratio 2.63, P < 0.05) was an independent predictor of worse outcome. In the subgroup without events within 1 year after angioplasty (n = 117), the outcome differed among the three renal functional categories at 1 year based on eGFR (log-rank χ2 = 16.28, P < 0.001) as well as on albuminuria/proteinuria (log-rank χ2 = 8.30, P < 0.05). At 1 year, 24 patients (20.1%) showed at least 20% decrease in eGFR, and their outcome was worse than that in those with at least 20% increase (n = 23) (hazard ratio 3.50, P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that pretreatment moderate-to-severe albuminuria/proteinuria was an independent predictor of at least 20% eGFR decrease (odds ratio 2.82, P < 0.05).

Conclusion:

Impaired renal function, and in particular, a poor response of eGFR to angioplasty, is associated with worse outcome. Therapeutic effectiveness of renal angioplasty seems to be limited in patients with albuminuria/proteinuria.

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