Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy in Locally Advanced Bulky Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

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Abstract

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term survival and feasibility in patients with bulky squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix who underwent surgery after concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

Methods

A review of patients with locally advanced bulky squamous cell cervical cancer who underwent chemoradiation followed by surgery with pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Chemoradiotherapy included 2 monthly doses of intra-arterial chemotherapy with cisplatin (50 mg/m2) and mitomycin C (10 mg/body) and external irradiation to the whole pelvis and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. From 2000 to 2006, 23 patients were enrolled in a single institution. Patient distribution according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage was as follows: 9 stage IB2, 10 stage IIB, and 4 stage IIIB. Radiological lymph node involvement was present in 69.6% (16/23), including 2 cases of para-aortic lymph node swelling. The radiological response, pathological response, overall and disease-free survival, and late complications were assessed.

Results

Among the patients, 12 (52.2%) showed pathological complete response, and 11 (47.8%) showed a pathological partial response for cervical lesions. Among the cases of radiological pelvic lymph node swelling, the response rate was 93.3% (14/15). Only 1 case showed viable cancer cells in the resected pelvic lymph nodes among radiological complete response cases. In the median follow-up duration (121 months; range, 17–180 months), the 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 95.7% and 86.7%, respectively. Seven events in 4 patients led to the development of postoperative fistula formation requiring a rescue surgery.

Conclusions

Chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery was effective for patients with bulky squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Further investigation to select suitable patients for this multimodal treatment will be required.

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