Hypertension in people living with HIV

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Abstract

Purpose of review

This review describes what is known concerning the burden of hypertension among people living with HIV (PLHIV), and also addresses relevant topics with respect to its risk factors and clinical management.

Recent findings

Hypertension is highly prevalent in HIV-positive populations, and may be more common than in HIV-negative populations. Risk factors contributing to the development of hypertension in PLHIV include demographic factors, genetic predisposition, lifestyle, comorbidities such as obesity, antiretroviral therapy-related changes in body composition, and potentially also immunodeficiency, immune activation and inflammation, as well as effects from antiretroviral therapy itself. Clinical management of hypertension in PLHIV requires awareness for drug–drug interactions between antiretroviral drugs and antihypertensive drugs. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in PLHIV is currently suboptimal and should be improved.

Summary

The burden of hypertension among PLHIV is high and its pathophysiology most likely multifactorial. Elucidating the exact pathophysiology of hypertension in PLHIV is vital as this may provide new targets to impact and improve clinical management. In the meantime, efforts should be made to improve hypertension management as per existing clinical guidelines in order to safeguard cardiovascular health and quality of life in PLHIV.

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