Physiologic, pathophysiologic, and pharmacologic regulation of gastric acid secretion

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Abstract

Purpose of review

The present review summarizes the past year's literature, both clinical and basic science, regarding physiologic and pharmacologic regulation of gastric acid secretion in health and disease.

Recent findings

Gastric acid kills microorganisms, assists digestion, and facilitates absorption of iron, calcium, and vitamin B12. The main stimulants of acid secretion are the hormone gastrin, released from antral G cells; paracrine agent histamine, released from oxyntic enterochromaffin-like cells; and neuropeptide acetylcholine, released from antral and oxyntic intramural neurons. Gastrin is also a trophic hormone that participates in carcinogenesis. Helicobacter pylori may increase or decrease acid secretion depending upon the acuity and predominant anatomic focus of infection; most patients manifest hypochlorhydria. Despite the fact that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are amongst the most widely prescribed drugs, they are underutilized in patients at high risk for UGI bleeding. Although generally considered well tolerated, concerns have been raised regarding associations between PPI use and dementia, kidney disease, myocardial infarction, pneumonia, osteoporosis, dysbiosis, small bowel injury, micronutrient deficiency, and fundic gland polyps.

Summary

Our understanding of the physiologic, pathophysiologic, and pharmacologic regulation of gastric secretion continues to advance. Such knowledge is crucial for improved and safe management of acid-peptic disorders.

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