Early detection of severe forms with unfavorable outcome is the cornerstone that could provide reduction of morbidity and mortality in acute pancreatitis (AP).Methods
The percentage of circulating CD4+CD25+CD127low/neg regulatory T-cells (Tregs) was determined at admission, on the 48th hour, and on the fifth day in 72 patients with AP. We divided patients in 2 groups—Sev1, which includes 19 patients (26.4%) with moderate AP and 39 patients (54.2%) with mild disease, and Sev2, which includes 14 patients (19.4%) with severe AP. Seven patients (9.7%) developed septic complications. The mortality in our group was 9.7%.Results
The patients in Sev2 had higher percentage of Tregs at admission and on the fifth day compared with patients in Sev1 (P = 0.007 and P = 0.033, respectively). There was no significant difference in percentage of Tregs at admission, on the 48th hour, and on the fifth day in patients who developed and did not develop infected necrosis (P = 0.50, P = 0.72, and P = 0.92, respectively). Patients with poor outcome had elevated percentage of Tregs on the fifth day (P = 0.045).Conclusions
The percentage of circulating Tregs may be implicated in the development of early immune suppression in AP. Elevated percentage of circulating Tregs at admission in AP is an independent prognostic biomarker for severe disease.