Impact of Inflammation and Anti-inflammatory Modalities on Skeletal Muscle Healing: From Fundamental Research to the Clinic
Anti-inflammatory modalities are commonly used for the treatment of various musculoskeletal injuries. Although inflammation was originally believed to interfere with skeletal muscle regeneration, several recent studies have highlighted the beneficial effects of inflammatory cells on muscle healing. This discrepancy is attributable to an evolving understanding of the complex inflammatory process. To better appreciate the paradoxical roles of inflammation, clinicians must have a better comprehension of the fundamental mechanisms regulating the inflammatory response. In this perspective article, cellular, animal, and human studies were analyzed to summarize recent knowledge regarding the impact of inflammation on muscle regeneration in acute or chronic conditions. The effect of anti-inflammatory drugs on the treatment of various muscle injuries was also considered. Overall, this work aims to summarize the current state of the literature on the inflammatory process associated with muscle healing in order to give clinicians the necessary tools to have a more efficient and evidence-based approach to the treatment of muscle injuries and disorders.