Exploring the Factor Structure of the Job Demands-Resources Measure With Patient Violence on Direct Care Workers in the Home Setting
Background and Purpose: Workplace violence research in health care settings using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) framework is hindered by the lack of comprehensive examination of the factor structure of the JD-R measure when it includes patient violence. Is patient violence a component of job demands or its own factor as an occupational outcome? Method: Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted using a sample of direct care workers in the home setting (n = 961). Results: The overall 2-construct JD-R structure persisted. Patient violence was not identified as a separate factor from job demands; rather, two demand factors emerged: violence/emotional and workload/physical demands. Conclusions: Although the three-factor model fits the data, the two-factor model with patient violence being a component of job demands is a parsimonious and effective measurement framework.