A summary of meat intakes and health burdens
This review summarizes published meta-analysis outcomes on the associations between meat intakes and burden of diseases. A novel assessment process was developed, combining selected Cochrane Review measures, AMSTAR checklist, and other quality measures identified by authors during preliminary phases of the review process. Meat intakes have been found to be statistically significant associated with 21 burden of diseases. A total of 37 risk-outcome best dose-response estimations were identified, all were positively associated, and 21 of them with low to moderate, or insignificant heterogeneity. The highest dose-responses per 50 g increases in processed meat intake at 95% confident levels were 1.81 (1.32, 2.48) for esophageal cancer, 1.71 (1.34, 2.19) for stomach cancer, 1.42 (1.07, 1.89) for CHD, 1.32 (1.19, 1.48) for diabetes, and 1.24 (1.13, 1.35) for colon cancer incidences, and 1.24 (1.09, 1.40) for CVD mortality. The highest dose-responses per each 65 g increases in total red meat intake were 1.36 (1.16, 1.58) for endometrial cancer, 1.25 (1.10, 1.41) esophageal cancer, and 1.22 (1.16, 1.23) for lung cancer incidences. In addition, 14 statistically significant associations in terms of high vs low meat intake relative risks were also identified. Total red meat intakes were found negatively associated with CVD and cancer mortalities, and poultry meat intakes were found negatively associated with all-cause and cancer mortalities, and rectal cancer incidences in low meat consumption Asian countries. Current global and dietary Comparative Risk Assessments may underestimate burden of diseases attributed to meat intakes. More investigation is needed in low-meat consumption countries.