Intraoperative Diagnosis of Anderson-Fabry Disease in Patients With Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Undergoing Surgical Myectomy

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Abstract

Importance

Diagnostic screening for Anderson-Fabry cardiomyopathy (AFC) is performed in the presence of specific clinical red flags in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) older than 25 years. However, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) has been traditionally considered an exclusion criteria for AFC.

Objective

To examine a series of patients diagnosed with HCM and severe basal LVOTO undergoing myectomy in whom the diagnosis of AFC was suspected by the cardiac surgeon intraoperatively and confirmed by histological and genetic examinations.

Design, Setting, and Participants

This retrospective analysis of patients undergoing surgical septal reduction strategies was conducted in 3 European tertiary referral centers for HCM from July 2013 to December 2016. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of obstructive HCM referred for surgical management of LVOTO were observed for at least 18 months after the procedure (mean [SD] follow-up, 33 [14] months).

Main Outcomes and Measures

Etiology of patients with HCM who underwent surgical myectomy.

Results

From 2013, 235 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of HCM underwent septal myectomy. The cardiac surgeon suspected a storage disease in 3 patients (1.3%) while inspecting their heart samples extracted from myectomy. The mean (SD) age at diagnosis for these 3 patients was 42 (4) years; all were male. None of the 3 patients presented with extracardiac features suggestive of AFC. All patients showed asymmetrical left ventricular hypertrophy, with maximal left ventricular thickness in the basal septum (19-31 mm), severe basal LVOTO (70-120 mm Hg), and left atrial dilatation (44-57 mm). Only 1 patient presented with late gadolinium enhancement on cardiovascular magnetic resonance at the right ventricle insertion site. The mean (SD) age at surgical procedure was 63 (5) years. On tactile sensation, the surgeon felt a spongy consistency of the surgical samples, different from the usual stony-elastic consistency typical of classic HCM, and this prompted histological examinations. Histology showed evidence of intracellular storage, and genetic analysis confirmed a GLA A gene mutation (p.Asn215Ser) in all 3 patients.

Conclusions and Relevance

Screening for AFC should be performed even in the absence of red flags in patients with HCM older than 25 years.

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