Genotypic and Phenotypic Features of BAP1 Cancer Syndrome: A Report of 8 New Families and Review of Cases in the Literature

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Abstract

Importance

Patients with germline mutations in BAP1 may develop several flesh-colored melanocytic BAP1–mutated atypical intradermal tumors (MBAITs). These tumors generally develop earlier than other BAP1–associated tumors, highlighting an important role for dermatologists in identifying and screening patients with a history suggestive of a germline mutation.

Objective

To describe 8 new families with germline mutations in BAP1 and provide a comprehensive review of reported cases.

Design, Settings and Participants

Patients were identified in an outpatient dermatology clinical setting over a 6-month period (10 mutation carriers from 8 families) and through a literature review using PubMed (205 patients).

Exposures

Mutations were identified through next-generation sequencing of saliva or blood samples, and RNA was extracted from fibroblasts cultured from a patient with an intronic variant to determine the impact of the mutation on the coding sequence.

Main Outcomes and Measures

All 215 patients were assessed for personal and/or family history and genotype. These findings were compiled and assessed for any association between genotype and phenotype.

Results

Overall, this study included 215 patients (108 women, 91 men, and 16 gender unspecified; median [range] age, 46.5 [10.0-79.0] years). Nine of the 10 patients who were identified in the outpatient dermatology setting were found to have MBAITs on clinical examination. Forty of 53 patients (75%) identified in the literature review who underwent total-body skin examinations (TBSE) were found to have MBAITs, suggesting a high penetrance in patients who have undergone TBSE. The most prevalent malignancies among BAP1 mutation carriers were uveal melanoma (n =  60 [28%]), mesothelioma (n = 48 [22%]), cutaneous melanoma (n = 38 [18%]), and renal cell carcinoma (n = 20 [9%]). A total of 71 unique mutations in BAP1 have been reported.

Conclusions and Relevance

Our results indicate that germline mutations in both coding and noncoding regions throughout the BAP1 gene can impair protein function, leading to an increased risk for several associated malignancies. Four of the 8 probands we present had no history of BAP1-associated malignancies and were assessed for germline mutations when found to have MBAITs on dermatologic examination. Dermatologists can identify patients with a high likelihood of the BAP1 cancer syndrome through personal and family history and TBSE for the presence of possible MBAITs.

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