Impact of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) infections in kidney transplantation.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) infections in solid organ transplant patients are progressively increasing and are associated with worse outcomes, although potential risk factors and therapeutic strategies are still not well defined.

METHODS

We conducted a retrospective matched-pair analysis in which we compared 26 recipients CR-KP-positive after kidney transplantation (KT) with 52 CR-KP-negative patients transplanted in the same period, during a CR-KP outbreak that occurred in our hospital. Twenty-one patients (80%) received a combined antibiotic treatment. At the end of the follow-up, of the 26 CR-KP infected patients, 11 (42.3%) experienced at least one episode of re-infection, 9 (34.6%) remained colonized, and 6 (23.0%) had a symptomatic infection. Two of the 11 patients with re-infection died, while 9 were colonized at the end of the study.

RESULTS

A significantly better patient (P = .043) and graft (P < .001) survival was observed in CR-KP-negative patients. Univariate analysis identified the following variables as potential risk factors associated with CR-KP infection after KT: lower body mass index (P = .020); higher creatinine levels at post-transplant days 7 (P = .009), 15 (P = .026), and 30 (P = .019); longer hospital stay (P = .007); longer cold ischemia time (P = .004); delayed graft function (P = .020); and higher Clavien-Dindo score (P = .006).

CONCLUSION

The study confirmed that a CR-KP positivity may affect the outcome of a kidney transplant population. In severe CR-KP infections with sepsis, a combined antibiotic treatment seems to be advisable.

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