Chemical analysis and potential endocrine activities of aluminium coatings intended to be in contact with cosmetic water
The objective of the work was to check the presence of Non-Intended Added Substances (NIAS) with hormonal activities in aluminium coatings extracts coded: AA, BBF, MC and RR, furnished by four different suppliers. Water samples were prepared at room temperature or at 40 °C for three months to verify the storage effect on the coatings. Solid phase extraction was used to concentrate and to extract coating substances. Hormonal activities were checked in vitro using reporter gene bioassays. Except BBF, all extracts induced a weak but significant estrogenic agonist activity in the human cell line. Using an estrogenic antagonist (ICI-182, 780), the answer was demonstrated specific in the bioassay. RR was the only extract to induce a concentration dependent anti-androgenic response in the MDA-KB2 cell line. Analysis performed using GC–MS and HPLC–MS detected 12 substances in most of the extracts. 8 NIAS were present. Among them, 4 were identified with certainty: HMBT, BGA, DCU and BPA. Estrogenic potency was BPA > DCU > BGA > HMBT. HMBT was also anti-androgenic at high concentration. Combining chemical analysis and bioassays data, we demonstrated that in the RR and the RR40 extracts, the observed estrogenic response was mainly due to BPA, the anti-androgenic activity of RR could be due to a synergism between HMBT and BPA. For MC and AA, estrogenic responses appear to be due to the presence of DCU. Except BBF, storage conditions tended to increase estrogenic activities in all extracts. However, in term of risk assessment, activities observed were negligible. This work demonstrated that sensitive bioassays are pertinent tools in complement to chemical analysis to monitor and check the presence of NIAS with hormonal activity in coating extracts.