3D/2D Registration with superabundant vessel reconstruction for cardiac resynchronization therapy
A key component of image guided interventions is the registration of preoperative and intraoperative images. Classical registration approaches rely on cross-modality information; however, in modalities such as MRI and X-ray there may not be sufficient cross-modality information. This paper proposes a fundamentally different registration approach which uses adjacent anatomical structures with superabundant vessel reconstruction and dynamic outlier rejection. In the targeted clinical scenario of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) delivery, preoperative, non contrast-enhanced, MRI is registered to intraoperative, contrasted X-ray fluoroscopy. The adjacent anatomical structures are the left ventricle (LV) from MRI and the coronary veins reconstructed from two contrast-enhanced X-ray images. The novel concept of superabundant vessel reconstruction is introduced to bypass the standard reconstruction problem of establishing one-to-one correspondences. Furthermore, a new dynamic outlier rejection method is proposed, to enable globally optimal point set registration. The proposed approach has been qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on phantom, clinical CT angiography with ground truth and clinical CRT data. A novel evaluation method is proposed for clinical CRT data based on previously implanted artificial aortic and mitral valves. The registration accuracy in 3D was 2.94 mm for the aortic and 3.86 mm for the mitral valve. The results are below the required accuracy identified by clinical partners to be the half-segment size (16.35 mm) of a standard American Heart Association (AHA) 16 segment model of the LV.