Pre- and Post-Transfusion Alloimmunization in Dogs Characterized by 2 Antiglobulin-Enhanced Cross-match Tests.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

When dogs are transfused, blood compatibility testing varies widely but may include dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1 typing and rarely cross-matching.

OBJECTIVES

Prospective study to examine naturally occurring alloantibodies against red blood cells (RBCs) and alloimmunization by transfusion using 2 antiglobulin-enhanced cross-match tests.

ANIMALS

Eighty client-owned anemic, 72 donor, and 7 control dogs.

METHODS

All dogs were typed for DEA 1 and some also for DEA 4 and DEA 7. Major cross-match tests with canine antiglobulin-enhanced immunochromatographic strip and gel columns were performed 26-129 days post-transfusion (median, 39 days); some dogs had an additional early evaluation 11-22 days post-transfusion (median, 16 days). Plasma from alloimmunized recipients was cross-matched against RBCs from 34 donor and control dogs.

RESULTS

The 2 cross-match methods gave entirely concordant results. All 126 pretransfusion cross-match results for the 80 anemic recipients were compatible, but 54 dogs died or were lost to follow up. Among the 26 recipients with follow-up, 1 dog accidently received DEA 1-mismatched blood and became cross-match-incompatible post-transfusion. Eleven of the 25 DEA 1-matched recipients (44%) became incompatible against other RBC antigens. No naturally occurring anti-DEA 7 alloantibodies were detected in DEA 7- dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE

The antiglobulin-enhanced immunochromatographic strip cross-match and laboratory gel column techniques identified no naturally occurring alloantibodies against RBC antigens, but a high degree of post-transfusion alloimmunization in dogs. Cross-matching is warranted in any dog that has been previously transfused independent of initial DEA 1 typing and cross-matching results before the first transfusion event.

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