Vitamin D and osteosarcopenia: an update from epidemiological studies

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Abstract

Purpose of review

The review summarizes recent epidemiological studies that examined the relationship between osteoporosis and sarcopenia to assess the impact of vitamin D status or supplementation on health outcomes related to these two medical conditions.

Recent findings

Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are major public health problems, but whether these two diseases should be considered alone or combined into a single condition is not clear. No consensual definition of osteosarcopenia is largely accepted. Most observational studies demonstrate some relationship between muscle and bone health. Vitamin D status is generally lower in study participants with bone or muscle wasting. Studies on the effects of vitamin D supplementation on muscle or bone health have provided conflicting results, likely because of the heterogeneity between studies. However, the most positive results were observed in study participants with low vitamin D status and in studies that avoided massive boluses of vitamin D.

Summary

More observational and interventional studies are needed to confirm the exact role of vitamin D in the pathophysiology and treatment of osteosarcopenia.

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