Long-term outcomes with as-needed aflibercept in diabetic macular oedema: 2-year outcomes of the ENDURANCE extension study

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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of individualised 2.0 mg intravitreal aflibercept retreatment for diabetic macular oedema (DME) through the fifth year of management.


This is a phase IV, 2-year, open-label extension study. Sixty patients completing the 3-year VISTA DME (Study of Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection in Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema) phase III trial enrolled in the ENDURANCE (Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Intravitreal Aflibercept for the Treatment of DME in Subjects Who Completed the VISTA DME Trial) extension study. All patients received aflibercept in the presence of clinically relevant DME. Intervals between visits were prescribed according to disease activity. The main outcome measure was mean aflibercept injections given through 2 years.


A mean of 7.7 aflibercept injections were administered through 2 years. Fifteen (25%) patients required no retreatment and 48% (n=29) of patients received five or fewer injections through 2 years. Among patients who received at least one aflibercept retreatment during ENDURANCE, the mean number of injections through 2 years was 9.5. The mean visual acuity and central retinal thickness gains achieved during VISTA DME were maintained and stable during ENDURANCE. The most notable safety signal was progression of diabetic retinopathy. Six (10%) patients converted from non-proliferative to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and a total of eight patients experienced PDR events occurring at a mean of 387 days following the previous aflibercept treatment.


The need for aflibercept retreatment was substantially reduced in the fourth and fifth years of aflibercept dosing for DME following initiation of therapy in the VISTA DME trial. While vision gains achieved during the 3-year VISTA DME trial were maintained through ENDURANCE with a reduced treatment burden, clinically relevant worsening of diabetic retinopathy was observed with progression to PDR in 10% of the eyes.

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