The aim of the study was to evaluate possible antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of a bacteriocin, nisin with two essential oil components linalool and p-coumaric acid in combination against food-borne bacteria Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium. Their inhibition effects on planktonic cells and preformed biofilms were evaluated using microbroth dilution and checkerboard titration methods. Nisin/p-coumaric acid combination showed synergistic effects against planktonic cells of both the studied bacteria, whereas nisin/linalool combination showed synergistic activity against B. cereus and additive effect against S. typhimurium. In preformed biofilms, nisin by itself failed to show >50% antibiofilm efficacy against both the studied bacteria, but in combination with linalool and p-coumaric acid, it exerted >50% antibiofilm efficacy. On the basis of fractional inhibitory concentration indices values, nisin/p-coumaric acid combination exhibited synergistic antibiofilm activity, whereas nisin/linalool combination showed additive effects against preformed biofilms of studied bacteria. The results provide evidence that p-coumaric acid due to its synergistic interactions with nisin against planktonic cells and biofilms of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne bacteria enhanced the antibacterial spectrum of nisin, which subsequently may facilitate their use in the food industry.Significance and Impact of the Study:
In the present work, synergistic interactions between a bacteriocin, nisin and essential oil component p-coumaric acid on planktonic cells as well as on biofilms of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne bacteria have been reported. The results of this study provide evidence that nisin/p-coumaric acid combination can be considered as a promising source for development of more potent broad spectrum antimicrobial blend for food preservation, which subsequently may facilitate their use in the food industry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of nisin in combination with essential oil components against food-borne bacteria.