A Case of Lenticulostriate Stroke Due to Minor Closed Head Injury in a 2-Year-Old Child: Role of Mineralizing Angiopathy
Cerebral infarction due to minor head injury is rare. Mineralizing angiopathy is considered a predisposing factor for lenticulostriate stroke after minor closed head injury. This entity is characterized by infarction of the basal ganglia and most often occurs in young children, from infancy to 2 years of age. Symptoms usually occur immediately after the injury.Methods and Results
We present the case of a previously healthy 2-year-old female child presenting with right facial hemiparesis and aphasia, along with right arm and leg weakness that occurred immediately after a fall from the couch onto a carpeted floor. A brain computed tomography scan revealed small and linear calcifications of the basal ganglia and subcortical frontoparietal area, in the absence of signs of intracranial hemorrhage. Brain magnetic resonance imaging with stroke protocol revealed restriction of water diffusion in the left basal ganglia on diffusion-weighted imaging sequences as well as apparent diffusion coefficient sequences, suggesting an acute infarct of the left basal ganglia within the distribution of the lenticulostriate vessels. The patient was treated with aspirin and conservative management and had gradual improvement over the next few days, with full recovery of the aphasia, facial nerve function, and arm and leg mobility, within 2 months.Conclusions
Some infants can present with the onset of stroke-like symptoms after minor head injuries. Presence of linear calcifications of the basal ganglia noticed on brain computed tomography in many of these patients suggests that mineralizing angiopathy may be a predisposing factor for lenticulostriate stroke after minor closed head injury in infants. Brain magnetic resonance imaging to further delineate possible cerebral infarction is indicated.