Intrathecal Infusion of Haploidentical Nondonor Lymphocytes for Central Nervous System Leukemic Relapse After Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Leukemic relapse in the central nervous system (CNS) after conventional treatment is associated with a poor prognosis. The effectiveness and safety of IV infusion of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched lymphocytes for leukemia, and intrathecal (IT) infusion of HLA-mismatched lymphocytes for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination of medulloblastoma have been reported. A 13-year-old girl (HLA-A31+) was diagnosed as relapsing from Philadelphia chromosome–positive acute leukemia in the CNS after receiving chemotherapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from her father (HLA-A31−), and craniospinal irradiation. We performed an IT infusion of haploidentical lymphocytes from her mother. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from her mother (HLA-A31+) were administered by IT infusion weekly. Examination of CSF 1 week after first IT showed that lymphocyte counts had increased markedly and the breakpoint cluster region/abelson-bearing cells had disappeared. Furthermore, CD3+ T cells in the CSF were negative for HLA-A31, and expressed high HLA-DR. These results indicate the infused non–HSCT-donor lymphocytes did not survive, and that the HSCT donor(father)–derived lymphocytes migrated to the CSF and were activated. The patient showed partial remission for 2 months following this therapy. Serious adverse reactions and graft versus host disease were not observed. To control leukemic CNS dissemination, haploidentical nondonor lymphocytes might contribute to a graft versus leukemia effect.