Osteoporotic Thoracolumbar Fractures—How Are They Different?—Classification and Treatment Algorithm

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Abstract

Summary:

Osteoporotic vertebral fractures constitute at least 50% of the osteoporotic fractures that happen worldwide. Occurrence of osteoporotic fractures make the elderly patient susceptible for further fractures and increases the morbidity due to kyphosis and pain; the mortality risk is also increased in these patients. Most fractures occur in the thoracic and thoracolumbar region and are often stable. Different descriptive and prognostic classification systems have been described, but none are universally accepted. Radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in imaging the fracture and evaluating the bone density. In acute stages, the fractures are well treated with conservative measures including short bed rest, analgesics, bracing, and exercises. Although most fractures heal well, up to 30% of fractures can develop painful nonunion, progressive kyphosis, and neurological deficit. For patients who develop severe pain not responding to nonoperative measures and painful nonunion, percutaneous cement augmentation procedures including vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty have been suggested. For fractures with severe collapse and that lead to neurological deficit and increasing kyphosis, instrumented stabilization is advised. Prevention and management of osteoporosis is the key element in the management of osteoporotic fractures in the elderly. Guidelines for essential adequate dietary and supplemental calcium and vitamin D, and antiosteoporotic medications have been described.

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