Skin metastases in epithelial ovarian and fallopian tube carcinoma
This study aimed to investigate the clinical features and outcomes of skin metastasis in ovarian and fallopian tube carcinomas.
We studied patients with epithelial ovarian or fallopian tube carcinoma who developed skin metastasis from 2001 through 2012, and were also treated with chemotherapy and/or surgery.
Skin metastases were classified as umbilical metastasis (Sister Joseph nodule [SJN]) and nonumbilical metastasis. Patients who developed skin metastases at paracentesis sites were excluded.
Of the 206 patients treated, 12 (5.8%) developed skin metastasis: 7 developed SJN, and 5 developed nonumbilical metastasis. Six patients had serous carcinoma, 3 had clear cell carcinoma, 2 had endometrioid carcinoma, and 1 had adenocarcinoma. Four patients out of the 7 who developed SJN had skin metastasis at initial diagnosis, and all 4 patients had SJN with concomitant peritoneal dissemination. Of the 4 patients, 3 received chemotherapy, and their survival ranged from 22 to 42 months. Of the 7 patients who developed SJN, 3 patients with stage IIIC disease developed an SJN at recurrence and were treated with surgery and/or chemotherapy. Their survival duration after recurrence ranged from 26 to 43+ months. Five patients developed nonumbilical metastases 3 to 53 months (median 34 months) after initial diagnosis: 3 cases occurred in incisional scars of primary surgery, and 2 in subcutaneous metastasis in the other sites. Survival after recurrence ranged from 56 to 140+ months in 3 patients with incisional scar recurrence, and it was 5 months in 2 other patients.
Sister Joseph nodule developed only in patients with peritoneal dissemination, and most patients with SJN survived for >24 months. Nonumbilical metastases occurring in incisional scars of primary surgery may carry a favorable prognosis.