Novel molecular defects associated with very early-onset inflammatory bowel

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Immune dysregulation disorders present with common clinical features of multiorgan autoimmunity. Gastrointestinal involvement is the hallmark of an impaired immune homeostasis. This review will give an overview on the novel phenotypes, highlighting the major points that will help to enable early diagnosis and treatment.

Recent findings

The rapid progress on DNA sequencing technologies have led to the identification of monogenic defects that adversely impact the control of immune homeostasis. Lymphocytes may be present but dysfunctional, allowing for the development of excessive autoreactivity and resultant autoimmune disease. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an essential role in enforcing immune tolerance. Here we illustrate disorders caused by impairment of mechanisms ensuring Tregs function (Tregs related) in which autoimmunity is a hallmark of the clinical disease presentation and other disorders, affecting molecules more broadly involved in immune responses and indirectly causing immune dysregulation (Tregs unrelated). Clinical presentation is sometime mischievous and often symptoms are analogous in different diseases and can mislead diagnosis.

Summary

The increasing comprehension of immunological concepts behind immune dysregulation diseases will allow better and in some cases possibly even targeted treatment. A genetic diagnosis therefore becomes important information in this group of patients, especially as some patients might require hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

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