Cancer risks and survival in patients with multiple primary melanomas: Association with family history of melanoma and germlineCDKN2Amutation status

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Abstract

Background:

Worse outcomes have been noted in patients with multiple primary melanomas (MPMs) than in patients with single primary melanomas.

Objective:

We investigated how family history of melanoma and germline CDKN2A mutation status of MPM patients affects risks of developing subsequent melanomas and other cancers and survival outcomes.

Methods:

Comprehensive data on cancer diagnoses and deaths of MPM patients, their first-degree relatives, and matched controls were obtained through Swedish national health care and population registries.

Results:

Familial MPM cases with germline CDKN2A mutations were youngest at the diagnosis of their second melanoma (median age 42 years) and had among the MPM cohorts the highest relative risks (RR) compared to controls of developing >2 melanomas (RR 238.4, 95% CI 74.8–759.9). CDKN2A mutated MPM cases and their first-degree relatives were the only cohorts with increased risks of nonskin cancers compared to controls (RR 3.6, 95% CI 1.9–147.1 and RR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9–5.6, respectively). In addition, CDKN2A mutated MPM cases had worse survival compared with both cases with familial (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.3–8.1) and sporadic wild-type MPM (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.3–5.4).

Limitations:

Our study examined outcomes in subgroups of MPM patients, which affected the sample size of the study groups.

Conclusion:

This study demonstrates that CDKN2A mutation status and family history of melanoma significantly affects outcomes of MPM patients.

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