Model based population PK-PD analysis of furosemide for BP lowering effect: A comparative study in primary and secondary hypertension
Though numerous reports have demonstrated multiple mechanisms by which furosemide can exert its anti-hypertensive response. However, lack of studies describing PK-PD relationship for furosemide featuring its anti-hypertensive property has limited its usage as a blood pressure (BP) lowering agent. Serum concentrations and mean arterial BP were monitored following 40 and 80 mg kg−1 multiple oral dose of furosemide in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and DOCA-salt induced hypertensive (DOCA-salt) rats. A simultaneous population PK-PD relationship using Emax model with effect compartment was developed to compare the anti-hypertensive efficacy of furosemide in these rat models. A two-compartment PK model with Weibull-type absorption and first-order elimination best described the serum concentration-time profile of furosemide. In the present study, post dose serum concentrations of furosemide were found to be lower than the EC50. The EC50 predicted in DOCA-salt rats was found to be lower (4.5-fold), whereas the tolerance development was higher than that in SHR model. The PK-PD parameter estimates, particularly lower values of EC50, Ke and Q in DOCA-salt rats as compared to SHR, pinpointed the higher BP lowering efficacy of furosemide in volume overload induced hypertensive conditions. Insignificantly altered serum creatinine and electrolyte levels indicated a favorable side effect profile of furosemide. In conclusion, the final PK-PD model described the data well and provides detailed insights into the use of furosemide as an anti-hypertensive agent.