Pinocembrin, a novel histidine decarboxylase inhibitor with anti-allergic potential inin vitro
Pinocembrin (5, 7- dihydroxy flavanone) is the most abundant chiral flavonoid found in propolis, exhibiting antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of Pinocembrin on allergic response is unexplored. Thus, current study aimed at investigating the effects of Pinocembrin on IgE-mediated allergic response in vitro. A special emphasis was directed toward histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and other pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory mediators. Preliminary studies, using a microbiological model of Klebsiella pneumoniae, provided first evidences that suggest Pinocembrin as a potential thermal stable inhibitor for HDC. Applying docking analysis revealed possible interaction between Pinocembrin and mammalian HDC. In vitro studies validated the predicted interaction and showed that Pinocembrin inhibits HDC activity and histamine in IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 in response to dinitrophenol (DNP)-bovine serum albumin (BSA) stimulation. In addition, Pinocembrin mitigated the damage in the mitochondrial membrane, formation of cytoplasmic granules and degranulation as indicated by lower β-hexoseaminidase level. Interestingly, it reduced range of pro-inflammatory mediators in the IgE-mediated allergic response including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (IκB)-α, prostaglandin (PGE)-2 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. In conclusion, current study suggests Pinocembrin as a potential HDC inhibitor, and provides the first evidences it is in vitro anti-allergic properties, suggesting Pinocembrin as a new candidate for natural anti-allergic drugs.