Effects of Lipopolysaccharide on the Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation of Stem Cells from the Apical Papilla

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Abstract

Introduction

Stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) were suggested as the stem cell source in regenerative endodontic procedures. However, bone and/or cementum-like structure were observed in root canals. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in infected root canals might alter SCAPs' osteogenic differentiation pattern. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of LPS on SCAPs' proliferation and osteogenic differentiation.

Methods

The mesenchymal stem cell characteristics of SCAPs were confirmed. Cell viability was tested with Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS at concentration between 0.001 and 5 μg/mL. SCAPs were pretreated with those concentrations for 168 hours. Then SCAPs were further investigated for cell proliferation by resazurin-based assay. Mineralization capacity was determined by alizarin red S staining. Odontoblast marker was determined by DSPP gene expression. General bone and cementum markers, BSP and OPN, were also determined. Determination of the expression levels of these genes was performed by polymerase chain reaction.

Results

SCAPs demonstrated the mesenchymal stem cell characteristics. All LPS concentrations did not affect cell viability. Pretreatment with LPS also did not affect cell proliferation and mineralization in every concentration. There was no significant difference between DSPP and OPN gene expression levels at all concentrations. However, LPS at 5 μg/mL significantly increased BSP gene expression.

Conclusions

Under the limitations of this in vitro study, LPS did not affect SCAP proliferation and mineralization. However, LPS at high concentration, 5 μg/mL, increased BSP gene expression.

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