OSA and Prognosis After Acute Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema: The OSA-CARE Study
Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE) is a life-threatening condition. OSA may be a modifiable risk factor for ACPE recurrence. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of OSA on the incidence of cardiovascular events following ACPE recovery.METHODS:
Consecutive patients with confirmed ACPE from 3 centers underwent a sleep study following clinical stabilization. OSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 events/h. The mean follow-up was 1 year, and the primary outcome was ACPE recurrence.RESULTS:
A total of 104 patients were included in the final analysis; 61% of the patients had OSA. A higher rate of ACPE recurrence (25 vs 6 episodes; P = .01) and a higher incidence of myocardial infarction (15 vs 0 episodes; P = .0004) were observed in patients with OSA than in those without OSA. All 17 deaths occurred in the OSA group (P = .0001). In a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, OSA was independently associated with ACPE recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 3.3 [95% CI, 1.2–8.8]; P = .01), incidence of myocardial infarction (HR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.1–9.5]; P = .02), cardiovascular death (HR, 5.4 [95% CI, 1.4–48.4]; P = .004), and total death (HR, 6.5 [95% CI, 1.2–64.0]; P = .005). When the analysis was limited only to patients with OSA, levels of AHI and hypoxemic burden and rates of sleep-onset ACPE were significantly higher in those who presented with ACPE recurrence or who died than in those who did not experience these events.CONCLUSIONS:
OSA is independently associated with higher rates of ACPE recurrence and both fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events.