In vitro toxicological assessment ofArrabidaea brachypoda(DC.) Bureau: Mutagenicity and estrogenicity studies
Arrabidaea brachypoda (DC.) Bureau is a shrub native Cerrado, known as “cipó-una”, “tintureiro” or “cervejinha do campo” and popularly used in Southeastern and Northeastern Brazil to treatment of kidney stones and painful joints (arthritis). Nevertheless, scientific information regarding this species is scarce, and there are no reports related to its possible estrogenic and mutagenic effects. Thus, the principal objective of this study was to assess the mutagenic and estrogenic activities of the hydroalcoholic extracts of the leaves, stalks, roots, their respective fractions and isolated compounds of A. brachypoda. The mutagenic activity was evaluated by the Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100 and TA102, in the absence (-S9) and presence (+S9) of metabolic activation system. In the RYA was used Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered strain BY4741 (MATaura3Δ0 leu2Δ0 his3Δ1 met15Δ0) which reproduce the natural pathway of genetic control by estrogens in vertebrate cells; it has the advantage of its simplicity and a high throughput. All extracts and aqueous fraction of leaves A. brachypoda were mutagenic. The crude extract is more active than the fraction, suggesting a synergic effect. Only hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves and roots of A. brachypoda showed significant estrogenic activity, with ERα-dependent transcriptional activation activity. The obtained results in this study showed the presence of compounds capable of interacting with the estrogen receptor and to induce damage in the genetic material. Thus, we demonstrated the risk which the population is subjected due to indiscriminate use of extracts without detailed study.