Underutilization of antiplatelet and statin therapy after postoperative myocardial infarction following vascular surgery

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Abstract

Objective

The objective of this study was to investigate adherence to practice guidelines for antiplatelet and statin use after postoperative myocardial infarction (POMI) and its effect on late mortality following vascular surgery in a multicenter registry.

Methods

Antiplatelet and statin use was examined in 1749 vascular surgery procedures with POMI within the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) from 2005 to 2015. Our primary aim was to assess cardiac medication (CM) use at discharge, defined as (1) single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT; aspirin or P2Y12 inhibitor) or dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT; aspirin and P2Y12 inhibitor) and (2) statin therapy. Long-term mortality in patients with POMI was analyzed on the basis of discharge CM. A proportional hazards model was developed to control for factors associated with mortality. Regional differences in CM use at discharge after POMI were compared.

Results

Overall discharge CM use after POMI included aspirin (81%), P2Y12 inhibitor (38%), statin therapy (76%), and combined antiplatelet and statin (74%). At discharge, 26% of patients were not receiving combined antiplatelet and statin therapy. SAPT (50%) was more common than DAPT (35%; P < .001). Patients with POMI undergoing carotid endarterectomy were more likely to be discharged on CM (80%) compared with patients undergoing infrainguinal bypass (78%), suprainguinal bypass (72%), endovascular aneurysm repair (71%), and open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (59%; P < .001). Patients receiving SAPT or DAPT plus statin therapy had improved survival (79%) compared with those receiving noncombination or no therapy (69%) with mean follow-up of 5.5 years and 4.9 years, respectively (log-rank, P = .001). After adjustment for covariates including preoperative medications, treatment with SAPT or DAPT plus statin at discharge was associated with lower late mortality compared with noncombination or no therapy (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.93; P = .01). Regional variation in CM at discharge following POMI was also observed with a range of 33% to 100% (P = .05).

Conclusions

Within the VQI, regional and procedure-specific variation exists in CM regimen after POMI following vascular surgery. Absence of combined antiplatelet and statin therapy at discharge after POMI was associated with higher late mortality and represents an area for quality improvement in the care of these patients.

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