Functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis

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Abstract

Purpose of review

This review summarizes recent progress in the epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis.

Recent findings

The definition of functional dyspepsia and its subgroups has been revised in the recent Rome IV consensus. In gastroparesis, the symptom pattern and its similarities and differences from functional dyspepsia have been a focus of recent research. In functional dyspepsia, pathophysiological research continued to evaluate gastric sensorimotor dysfunctions, but low-grade inflammatory changes and loss of mucosal integrity in the duodenum is a new topic of intense research. Treatment advances include new prokinetics such as acotiamide and the ghrelin receptor agonist relamorelin. The efficacy of tricyclic antidepressants was recently reviewed and mirtazapine is a new agent used in the treatment of functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis. In gastroparesis, research has focused on the role of macrophages in loss of interstitial cells of Cajal, and on the role of pyloric resistance as a target for therapy, using botulinum toxin injection and gastric per-endoscopic pyloric myotomy.

Summary

The functional dyspepsia definition and subgrouping were updated in the Rome IV consensus. Research focuses on duodenal mucosal alterations in functional dyspepsia and pyloric resistance in gastroparesis. New treatments include novel prokinetics and pylorus-directed interventions.

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