HIV and myocarditis

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Purpose of review

The purpose of this article is to review the literature on HIV and myocarditis and HIV-associated heart failure.

Recent findings

Currently, 17 million people are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. There is a decrease in mortality from HIV in the last decade with increased survival in those receiving ART. HIV-associated cardiac failure is on the increase, with more cases of diastolic dysfunction reported in the ART era. The pathophysiology of HIV-associated myocarditis is multifactorial. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), through tissue characterization, demonstrates increased native T1 values which reflect both increased myocardial inflammation and fibrosis in HIV infection.


HIV-associated myocarditis is common and may be an important cause of HIV-associated cardiac failure. CMR is an important imaging modality for the study of myocardial inflammation.

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