Although the clinical benefit of interleukin-2-receptor antibody (IL-2RAb) induction in reducing the risk of acute rejection in adult kidney transplant recipients is well established, a similar benefit in pediatric recipients remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of IL-2RAb in reducing acute rejection in pediatric and adolescent recipients aged 21 years or younger using Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant registry.Methods
The association between IL-2RAb induction and risk of acute rejection was examined using adjusted logistic regression and propensity score analyses, whereby the associations between induction, graft loss, and incident cancer were examined using adjusted Cox regression analysis.Results
There were 658 recipients followed up for a median of 5.5 years between 2001 and 2012. The use of IL-2RAb induction was associated with adjusted odds ratios of 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.91; P = 0.007) for any rejection and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.35-0.92; P = 0.020) for early rejection occurring in the first 6 months after transplant. These associations were attenuated in the propensity score analysis but remained statistically significant with adjusted odds ratio of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.49-0.87) for any rejection and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.44-0.93) for early rejection. There were no associations between induction, graft loss, and incident cancer.Conclusions
Induction treatment of IL-2RAb in pediatric and adolescent kidney transplant recipients is associated with at least a 40% reduction in the odds of acute rejection, independent of age, era, immunological status, and initial immunosuppression.