Estimation of Population Average Treatment Effects in the FIRST Trial: Application of a Propensity Score-Based Stratification Approach.

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid

Abstract

OBJECTIVE/STUDY QUESTION

To estimate and compare sample average treatment effects (SATE) and population average treatment effects (PATE) of a resident duty hour policy change on patient and resident outcomes using data from the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees Trial ("FIRST Trial").

DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING

Secondary data from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the FIRST Trial (2014-2015).

STUDY DESIGN

The FIRST Trial was a cluster-randomized pragmatic noninferiority trial designed to evaluate the effects of a resident work hour policy change to permit greater flexibility in scheduling on patient and resident outcomes. We estimated hierarchical logistic regression models to estimate the SATE of a policy change on outcomes within an intent-to-treat framework. Propensity score-based poststratification was used to estimate PATE.

DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS

This study was a secondary analysis of previously collected data.

PRINCIPAL FINDINGS

Although SATE estimates suggested noninferiority of outcomes under flexible duty hour policy versus standard policy, the noninferiority of a policy change was inconclusively noninferior based on PATE estimates due to imprecision.

CONCLUSIONS

Propensity score-based poststratification can be valuable tools to address trial generalizability but may yield imprecise estimates of PATE when sparse strata exist.

    loading  Loading Related Articles