Effect of Listening to Music on Patient Anxiety and Pain Perception during Urodynamic Study: Randomized Controlled Trial

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Urodynamic studies (UDS) include assessments of the physics and physiology of the lower urinary tract (LUT). It is an invasive test and patients can feel fear and anxiety, especially at the beginning of the test. The aim of this study was to determine whether listening to music during urodynamic study decreases patient anxiety and pain.


Sixty-two patients who underwent urodynamic study were randomized into the following groups: no music (group 1, n = 30) or classical music (group 2, n = 32) during the procedure. Patient anxiety levels were quantified using the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI). A visual analog scale (VAS) was used for self-assessment of discomfort and willingness among patients to have a repeat urodynamic study.


Demographic characteristics, mean age, duration of procedure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and heart rate before procedure were statistically significantly similar between the two groups. Statistically significant differences were detected between the two groups in the mean pain score on VAS (4.1 ± 1.4 vs 2.6 ± 1.8), mean post-procedural STAI score (46 ± 5.8 vs 37.3 ± 5) and mean BAI score (14.2 ± 1.7 vs 3.5 ± 0.7). SBP and DBP and heart rate were similar between the groups.


Music is a cheap, safe and effective intervention that has gained increasing recognition as an effective tool to reduce pain and anxiety. Listening to music during urodynamic study reduced patient pain and anxiety.

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